Could California Finally Get Cannabis Tax Reform?

In a previous blog we reported that the California Department of Tax and Fee Administration (CDTFA) which oversees the reporting and collection of taxes for the California cannabis industry after conducting an analysis of statewide market data to determine the average mark-up rate between the wholesale cost and the retail selling price of cannabis and cannabis products, is increasing cannabis taxes effective January 1, 2020 by setting the mark-up rate at 80 percent.

Cannabis Excise Tax

The 15 percent cannabis excise tax is based on the average market price of the cannabis or cannabis products sold in a retail sale. The mark-up rate is used when calculating the average market price to determine the cannabis excise tax due in an arm’s length transaction. In an arm’s length transaction, the average market price is the retailer’s wholesale cost of the cannabis or cannabis products plus, the mark-up rate determined by the CDTFA. In a non-arm’s length transaction, the average market price is the cannabis retailer’s gross receipts from the retail sale of the cannabis or cannabis products.

Cannabis Cultivation Tax

As required by the Cannabis Tax Law, effective January 1, 2020, the cultivation tax rates reflect an adjustment for inflation. The adjusted rates for each category shown below will be reflected on the monthly and quarterly cannabis tax returns beginning January 1, 2020.

CANNABIS CATEGORY

CURRENT RATE

RATE EFFECTIVE 1/1/2020

Flower per dry-weight ounce

$9.25

$9.65

Leaves per dry-weight ounce

$2.75

$2.87

Fresh cannabis plant per ounce

$1.29

$1.35

  • On or after January 1, 2020, the rates apply to cannabis that a cultivator sells or transfers to a manufacturer or distributor.
  • Cultivator cannabis sales or transfers made prior to January 1, 2020, will use the current rate listed above.
  • All fresh cannabis plants must be weighed within two hours of harvesting.

If you are a cannabis retailer, you are required to collect the cannabis excise tax from your customers on each retail sale of cannabis or cannabis products starting January 1, 2018, and pay the excise tax to a distributor. Distributors are liable for paying the cannabis taxes to the CDTFA.

How This Impacts The Black Market

Many believe that the CDTFA’s decision to increase taxes on compliant cannabis operators while still mandating compliance with State and local regulations will widen the price disparity gap between cannabis products sold in the black market vs. cannabis products sold in the legal market. But with the State stepping up its enforcement efforts to uncover and prosecute illegal cannabis operators, the State is hoping to eliminate this discrepancy by eradicating non-compliant operators.

How Governor Newsom Is Looking To Reform This Area

We reported in a blog, Assembly Bill 37 signed into law last year by Governor Gavin Newsom that will approve cannabis companies for tax deductions that have otherwise been denied them under IRC Section 280E. 

On January 10, 2020, Governor Newsom released California’s proposed budget for 2020-2021, which includes proposals requested by the cannabis industry to streamline the regulatory, licensing, and tax process.  

These proposals notably include the following:

  • Consolidating the three licensing authorities (BCC, MCSB, CalCannabis Cultivation) into The Department of Cannabis Control by July 2021 with enforcement responsibilities against the regulated and illicit markets.
  • Proposing to move responsibility for cultivation tax collection to first distributor only (no final distributor or manufacturer). 
  • Proposing to move excise tax collection from the distributor to retailer which like sales taxes establishes liability on the “point of sale”.
  • Dedicating to work with industry on tax reform and reduction including the number of taxes and tax rates to simplify the system and to support a stronger, safer legal cannabis market.

Click here for the governor’s full 2020-2021 Budget Summary.

What Should You Do?

While the Governor’s support for reform is most welcomed, legislators must still approve of these changes which would not go into effect immediately so you still need to start your cannabis business on the right track under existing law.  Protect yourself and your investment by engaging the cannabis tax attorneys at the Law Offices Of Jeffrey B. Kahn, P.C. located in Orange County (Irvine), Los Angeles County and other California locations. We can come up with tax solutions and strategies and protect you and your business and to maximize your net profits. Also, if you are involved in crypto currency, check out what a bitcoin tax attorney can do for you.

Getting Ready For The 2020 Tax Filing Season

Getting Ready For The 2020 Tax Filing Season

On January 6, 2020, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) announced that it will process 2019 tax returns beginning January 27, 2020.

April 15th Filing Deadline.

The filing deadline to submit 2019 tax returns is Wednesday, April 15, 2020.

Since the IRS will begin processing tax returns on January 27th there is no advantage to filing tax returns on paper in early January instead of waiting for the IRS to begin accepting e-filed returns.  Nevertheless, it makes sense to start organizing your information early and so when the IRS filing systems open on January 27th, you are ready to submit your tax return right away.

Refunds in 2020.

Choosing e-file and direct deposit for refunds remains the fastest way to file an accurate income tax return and receive a refundThe IRS still anticipates issuing at least 90%of tax refunds in less than 21 days, but there are some important factors to keep in mind for taxpayers that could cause delay.  Under the Protecting Americans from Tax Hikes (PATH) Act, the IRS is required to hold refunds for tax returns which include a claim of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and the Additional Child Tax Credit (ACTC) until mid-February 2020. Also consider that it would still take several days for these refunds to be released and processed through financial institutions, and factoring in weekends, and the President’s Day holiday, taxpayers claiming these credits may not have actual access to their refunds until the later part of February.

The status of your tax refund can be checked directly with IRS by using the Where’s My Refund? ‎on IRS.gov and the IRS2Go phone app.

Time Limits For Keeping Your Tax Records

Even though your 2019 income tax return is processed by the IRS and a refund is issued, that does not mean the IRS can later question or audit the tax return,  In fact the Statute Of Limitations allows the IRS three years to go back and audit your tax return.  That is why it’s a good idea to keep copies of your prior-year tax returns and supporting backup documentation for at least three years.

What Should You Do?

You know that at the Law Offices Of Jeffrey B. Kahn, P.C. we are always thinking of ways that our clients can save on taxes. If you are selected for an audit, stand up to the IRS by getting representation. Tax problems are usually a serious matter and must be handled appropriately so it’s important to that you’ve hired the best lawyer for your particular situation. The tax attorneys at the Law Offices Of Jeffrey B. Kahn, P.C. located in Orange County (Irvine), the San Francisco Bay Area (including San Jose and Walnut Creek) and elsewhere in California are highly skilled in handling tax matters and can effectively represent at all levels with the IRS and State Tax Agencies including criminal tax investigations and attempted prosecutions, undisclosed foreign bank accounts and other foreign assets, and unreported foreign income. Also if you are involved in cannabis, check out what a cannabis tax attorney can do for you and if you are involved in crypto-currency, check out what a Bitcoin tax attorney can do for you.

Starting In 2020 New Worker Classification Law Takes Effect In California

Starting In 2020 New Worker Classification Law Takes Effect In California

On January 1, 2020, Assembly Bill 5 (AB 5) went into effect and may impact whether your workers are treated as employees or as independent contractors under California law.

In 2018, the California Supreme Court adopted “the ABC test” in Dynamex v. Superior Court. Under the ABC test, a worker is considered an employee, and not an independent contractor, unless the hiring entity can demonstrate that it meets all three of the following requirements:

  1. The individual is free from the control and direction of the hiring entity in connection with the performance of the work, both under the contract for the performance of the work and in fact;
  2. The individual performs work that is outside the usual course of the hiring entity’s business; and
  3. The individual is customarily engaged in an independently established trade, occupation, or business of the same nature as that involved in the work performed.

Assembly Bill (AB 5) was signed into law to codify – or write into statute – the ABC test from the Dynamex v. Superior Court decision. Under AB 5, the “ABC test” must be used to determine the appropriate classification of workers in most occupations for purposes of the Labor Code, the Unemployment insurance Code, and Industrial Welfare Commission (IWO) wage orders.

There are two exceptions to the current application of AB 5:

  1. AB 5 applies to work performed after January 1, 2020. Exceptions have specific requirements and the EDD will use the Borello common law test in these cases. View AB 5 for more details on exceptions.
  1. Additionally, AB 170 exempts newspaper distributors and carriers from the ABC test until January 1, 2021.

Federal Worker Classification Status More Complicated

Under Federal law, the determination of worker classification can be complex and depends on the facts and circumstances of each case. The determination is based on whether the person for whom the services are performed has the right to control how the worker performs the services. It is not based merely on how the worker is paid, how often the worker is paid, or whether the work is part-time or full-time.

There are three basic categories of factors that are relevant to determining a worker’s classification:

  • Behavioral control (whether there is a right to direct or control how the worker does the work),
  • Financial control (whether there is a right to direct or control the business part of the work), and
  • Relationship of the parties (how the business and worker perceive the relationship).

Generally, if you are an independent contractor you are considered self-employed and should report your income (nonemployee compensation) on Schedule C (Form 1040), Profit or Loss From Business (Sole Proprietorship), or Schedule C-EZ (Form 1040), Net Profit From Business (Sole Proprietorship). Most self-employed individuals will need to pay self-employment tax (comprised of social security and Medicare taxes) if their income (net earnings from self-employment) is $400 or more. Use Schedule SE (Form 1040), Self-Employment Tax, to figure the tax due.

Generally, there is no tax withholding on income you receive as a self-employed individual as long as you provide your taxpayer identification number (TIN) to the payer. However, you may be subject to the requirement to make quarterly estimated tax payments. If you do not make timely estimated tax payments, the IRS may assess a penalty for an underpayment of estimated tax. Unlike independent contractors, employees generally pay income tax and their share of social security and Medicare taxes through payroll deductions (withholding).

California Employment Development Department

The Employment Development Department (EDD) administers payroll taxes which includes all employer paid taxes, State Income Tax Withholding of employees, State Disability Insurance (“SDI”) Taxes and Unemployment Insurance (“UI”) Taxes.

The greatest impact of AB 5 is that: after January 1, 2020, workers will be considered employees unless proven otherwise. The hiring entity must show that workers meet all conditions of the ABC test in order to classify them as independent contractors, unless there is a statutory exclusion or determination of employment. AB 5 does not change how out-of-state workers are classified. You can be certain that if your business is selected for audit by the EDD, the EDD will be applying AB 5.

Generally, the EDD employment tax audits cover a three-year statutory period, comprising the 12 most recently completed calendar quarters. An audit begins with the examination of records for a test year which is generally the most recent completed calendar year. However, the examination may be expanded to include the records for the entire period covered by the audit and in some situations may extend beyond the three-year statutory period.

Don’t Take The Chance And Lose Everything You Have Worked For.

Protect yourself. Federal and State Tax problems are usually a serious matter and must be handled appropriately so it’s important to that you’ve hired the best lawyer for your particular situation. The tax attorneys at the Law Offices Of Jeffrey B. Kahn, P.C. located in Orange County (Irvine), Los Angeles and elsewhere in California are highly skilled in handling tax matters and can effectively represent at all levels with the IRS and State Tax Agencies including criminal tax investigations and attempted prosecutions, undisclosed foreign bank accounts and other foreign assets, and unreported foreign income. Also, if you are involved in cannabis, check out what our cannabis tax attorney can do for you. Additionally, if you are involved in crypto currency, check out what a bitcoin tax attorney can do for you.

Top Four Tax Errors That Can Be Costly For Small Businesses When Dealing With The IRS

Top Four Tax Errors That Can Be Costly For Small Businesses When Dealing With The IRS

A small business owner often wears many different hats. They might have to wear their boss hat one day, and the employee hat the next. When tax season comes around, it might be their tax hat but even innocently failing to comply with tax laws, violating tax codes, or filling out forms incorrectly can leave business owners open to possible penalties and headaches from the IRS.

Being aware of common mistakes can also help tame the stress of tax time.

When it comes to the IRS, here are the top four mistakes business owners should avoid:

  1. Underpaying estimated taxes

Business owners should generally make estimated tax payments if they expect to owe tax of $1,000 or more when their return is filed. If they don’t pay enough tax through withholding and estimated tax payments, the IRS can charge a penalty.

  1. Under-depositing (or failing to deposit) employment taxes

Business owners with employees are expected to deposit taxes they withhold, plus the employer’s share of those taxes, through electronic fund transfers.  If those taxes are not deposited correctly and on time, the IRS can charge penalties to the business owner.

  1. Filing late

Just like individual returns, business tax returns must be filed in a timely manner. To avoid late filing penalties, taxpayers should be aware of all IRS tax requirements for their type of business the filing deadlines.

  1. Not separating business and personal expenses

It can be tempting to use one credit card for all expenses especially if the business is a sole proprietorship. Doing so can make it very hard to tell legitimate business expenses from personal ones. This could cause errors when claiming deductions and become a problem if the taxpayer or their business is ever audited as the IRS will be looking deny deductions which are suspected to be personal.      

What Should You Do?

Consider dropping the tax hat and instead engage qualified tax representation.

You know that at the Law Offices Of Jeffrey B. Kahn, P.C. we are always thinking of ways that our clients can save on taxes. If you are selected for an audit, stand up to the IRS by getting representation. Tax problems are usually a serious matter and must be handled appropriately so it’s important to that you’ve hired the best lawyer for your particular situation. The tax attorneys at the Law Offices Of Jeffrey B. Kahn, P.C. located in Orange County (Irvine), San Francisco and elsewhere in California are highly skilled in handling tax matters and can effectively represent at all levels with the IRS and State Tax Agencies including criminal tax investigations and attempted prosecutions, undisclosed foreign bank accounts and other foreign assets, and unreported foreign income. Also, if you are involved in cannabis, check out what our cannabis tax attorney can do for you. Additionally, if you are involved in crypto currency, check out what a bitcoin tax attorney can do for you.

5 Moves To Make Before Year End That Can Save You A Lot of Money on Your 2019 Taxes

5 Moves To Make Before Year End That Can Save You A Lot of Money on Your 2019 Taxes

On December 22, 2017, President Trump signed into law the 2017 Tax Cuts And Jobs Act. It’s been a good 30 years since the last time the Internal Revenue Code received such a major update.

Major Changes From The New Law Include:

Compressed And Lower Income Tax Rates For Individuals.

Increased Standard Deduction For Individuals

Elimination Of Personal Exemptions

Limitations of Deductibility Of Itemized Deductions including Mortgage Interest and State & Local Taxes.

Lower Corporation Tax Rates.

The Big Picture:

With many itemized deductions having disappeared by the 2017 Tax Cuts And Jobs Act and the higher standard deduction, less taxpayers will be itemizing deductions in 2019 but there is still significant tax planning you can do. The key here is to accelerate deductions in 2019 and defer income into 2020.

Following are five year-end tax moves to make before this New Year’s Day:

  1. Give more to charity in 2019.

In addition to the usual dollar donations to charities, religious institutions and educational institutions, consider clearing your home of those unwanted household goods and clothing to give to charities. Many groups will accept these items even vehicles, with some even making arrangements to pick up them up from your home. You may also consider to donate stock or mutual funds that you’ve held for more than a year but that no longer fit your investment goals. The charity gets the asset to hold or sell, and your portfolio re-balancing nets you a deduction for the asset’s value at the time of gifting. Even better, you do not have to worry about capital gains taxes on the appreciation of your gift. Remember that if you take the standard deduction in 2019, you won’t get any tax savings from your charitable contributions made in 2019.

  1. Make the most of your home – mortgage interest.

Home-ownership provides a variety of tax breaks, some of which you can use by year-end to reduce your current year’s tax bill. Make your January mortgage payment by December 31st and deduct the mortgage interest on your 2019 tax return.

  1. Make the most of your home – property taxes.

Like prepaying mortgage interest, the same tactic will apply for property taxes; however, keep in mind that property taxes along with other state and local taxes will be deductible only up to $10,000.

  1. Pay your self-employed business expenses now.

If you are self-employed, you should accelerate payment of your business expenses in 2019. Recognizing these expenses in 2019 will provide you with a tax savings for 2019.

  1. Defer your income into 2020.

If you are a small business owner, consider delaying income until January 2020. So if you are chasing up some customers or clients to pay the bill you sent them a while ago, you might want to wait until January to get aggressive on collecting. Consider delaying the delivery of invoices for year-end jobs until January 2020. Small business owners should make sure they are benefiting from the deduction of 20% of their business income. If you are an employee, ask your boss to hold your bonus until January. Individuals should also consider putting more money into a tax-deferred workplace retirement plan in 2019 and hold off on selling assets that will produce a capital gain until 2020.

What Should You Do?

With not much time left in 2019 you will need to act quickly on those tax moves that are easy to accomplish to reduce your tax bill.

You know that at the Law Offices Of Jeffrey B. Kahn, P.C. we are always thinking of ways that our clients can save on taxes. If you are selected for an audit, stand up to the IRS by getting representation. Tax problems are usually a serious matter and must be handled appropriately so it’s important to that you’ve hired the best lawyer for your particular situation. The tax attorneys at the Law Offices Of Jeffrey B. Kahn, P.C. located in Orange County (Irvine), Los Angeles and elsewhere in California are highly skilled in handling tax matters and can effectively represent at all levels with the IRS and State Tax Agencies including criminal tax investigations and attempted prosecutions, undisclosed foreign bank accounts and other foreign assets, and unreported foreign income. Also, if you are involved in cannabis, check out what our cannabis tax attorney can do for you. Additionally, if you are involved in crypto currency, check out what a bitcoin tax attorney can do for you.

“Kushy Punch” Loses Its State Cannabis License For Engaging In Illegal Activity

Anyone conducting business in cannabis surely knows that under Federal law (Controlled Substances Act 21 U.S.C. 801) marijuana is designated as a Schedule I controlled substance due to the historical belief that it has a high potential for abuse, no currently accepted medical use in treatment, and lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision. So the risk is apparent that at any time Federal authorities could come and shut you down but don’t think that just because cannabis is legal in California, you do not have to worry about the State.

California law mandates that you can only sell cannabis if you have obtained a license to do so. These licenses being issued by the Bureau of Cannabis Control (“BCC”) which also monitors compliance and will revoke your license if you are non-compliant. If you don’t have a license, then selling cannabis or transporting it in order to sell it is still a crime under H&S Code §11360.

State Of California Revokes Kushy Punch’s State Cannabis License.

The Bureau of Cannabis Control (“BCC”) and California Department of Public Health (“CDPH”) announced on November 21, 2019 that they have revoked the state commercial cannabis licenses issued to Vertical Bliss, Inc., also known as Kushy Punch, located at 20500 Nordhoff Street in Chatsworth, California.

After receiving a complaint about illegal cannabis activity at a location in Canoga Park, California, state regulators searched the unlicensed location and seized nearly $21 million in illegal cannabis products, including 7,200 illegal vape cartridges. The license for the Nordhoff Street premises was revoked following the discovery of connections between Vertical Bliss and the unlicensed location. The revocations of Vertical Bliss’ cannabis manufacturing license CDPH-10003574 and cannabis distribution license C11-0000544-LIC are effective November 21, 2019.

All commercial cannabis activity in California must be conducted on a premises with a valid license issued by the appropriate state cannabis licensing authority. Manufacturing, distributing or selling cannabis goods without a state license or at a location that is not licensed is a violation of state law.

In a previous blog we wrote about Governor Gavin Newsom’s promise made in February 2019 to deploy the California National Guard against marijuana grows in California. Multijurisdictional task forces have long been deployed against marijuana grows in California as we noted in the following blogs:

  • Click here on a raid the occurred in Riverside County.
  • Click here on a raid that occurred in Kern County.
  • Click here on a raid that occurred in the City of Santa Rosa in Sonoma County.
  • Click here on a raid that occurred in the City of Carpinteria in Santa Barbara County.
  • Click here on a raid that occurred in Riverside County.
  • Click here on a raid that occurred in the City of Buellton.

Penalties For Selling Cannabis Without A License.

For most defendants, unlicensed sale or transport for sale of cannabis is a misdemeanor punishable by up to six months in county jail and/or a fine of up to $1,000. For defendants under 18, it is an infraction. Also, giving away or transporting for sale up to 28.5 grams of cannabis without a license is an infraction.

But the sale/transport for sale of cannabis without a license to do so is a felony for the following defendants:

  1. Defendants who have a prior conviction for one of a list of particularly serious violent felonies, including murder, sexually violent offenses, sex crimes against a child under 14, or gross vehicular manslaughter while intoxicated, or a sex crime that requires them to register as a sex offender;
  1. Defendants who have two or more prior convictions for H&S Code §11360 sale/transportation of cannabis; 
  1. Defendants who knowingly sold, attempted to sell, or offered to sell or furnish cannabis to someone under 18; or
  1. Defendants who imported or attempted or offered to import into California, or transported or attempted/offered to transport out of California for sale, more than 28.5 grams of cannabis or more than four grams of concentrated cannabis.

In any of these scenarios, black market sale or transportation for sale of cannabis under H&S Code §11360 is punishable anywhere from two to four years in jail.

Transporting cannabis without intent to sell it, or giving cannabis away, is not a crime in California so long as BOTH of the following are true:

  1. You transport or give away not more than 28.5 grams of cannabis or eight grams of concentrated cannabis, and
  1. Any people you give cannabis to are 21 years of age or older.

What Should You Do?

You can count on other county governments coordinating resources and making comprehensive strikes on unlicensed and illegal cannabis operations for the safety of the public.

Both civil and criminal penalties will apply to unlicensed operators so it is imperative that anyone cultivating, manufacturing or distributing cannabis on a commercial basis in California seeks a local and state license for their operations immediately, if they have not already done so. Protect yourself and your investment by engaging the cannabis tax attorneys at the Law Offices Of Jeffrey B. Kahn, P.C. located in Orange County (Irvine), Los Angeles and other California locations. We can come up with tax solutions and strategies and protect you and your business and to maximize your net profits. Also, if you are involved in crypto currency, check out what a bitcoin tax attorney can do for you.

California Raising Cannabis Taxes In 2020

California Raising Cannabis Taxes In 2020

The California Department of Tax and Fee Administration (CDTFA) which oversees the reporting and collection of taxes for the California cannabis industry under Emergency Regulation 3700 established a new category and tax rate for the cannabis cultivation tax that took effect January 1, 2018, along with the other existing cultivation tax rates. Every six months the CDTFA re-determines the cannabis markup rate. An analysis of statewide market data was used to determine the average mark-up rate between the wholesale cost and the retail selling price of cannabis and cannabis products. Based on this analysis, effective January 1, 2020, the CDTFA is setting the mark-up rate at 80 percent.

Cannabis Excise Tax

The 15 percent cannabis excise tax is based on the average market price of the cannabis or cannabis products sold in a retail sale. The mark-up rate is used when calculating the average market price to determine the cannabis excise tax due in an arm’s length transaction. In an arm’s length transaction, the average market price is the retailer’s wholesale cost of the cannabis or cannabis products plus, the mark-up rate determined by the CDTFA. In a non-arm’s length transaction, the average market price is the cannabis retailer’s gross receipts from the retail sale of the cannabis or cannabis products.

Cannabis Cultivation Tax

As required by the Cannabis Tax Law, effective January 1, 2020, the cultivation tax rates reflect an adjustment for inflation. The adjusted rates for each category shown below will be reflected on the monthly and quarterly cannabis tax returns beginning January 1, 2020.

 

CANNABIS CATEGORY

CURRENT RATE

RATE EFFECTIVE 1/1/2020

Flower per dry-weight ounce

$9.25

$9.65

Leaves per dry-weight ounce

$2.75

$2.87

Fresh cannabis plant per ounce

$1.29

$1.35

 

  • On or after January 1, 2020, the rates apply to cannabis that a cultivator sells or transfers to a manufacturer or distributor.
  • Cultivator cannabis sales or transfers made prior to January 1, 2020, will use the current rate listed above.
  • All fresh cannabis plants must be weighed within two hours of harvesting.

If you are a cannabis retailer, you are required to collect the cannabis excise tax from your customers on each retail sale of cannabis or cannabis products starting January 1, 2018, and pay the excise tax to a distributor. Distributors are liable for paying the cannabis taxes to the CDTFA.

Invoice Requirements

Retailers are required to provide purchasers with a receipt or other similar document that includes the following statement – “The cannabis excise taxes are included in the total amount of this invoice.”

Recordkeeping

Every sale or transport of cannabis or cannabis products must be recorded on an invoice or receipt. Cannabis licensees are required to keep invoices for a minimum of seven years.

Distributors (or in some cases manufacturers) are responsible for collecting the cannabis cultivation and excise taxes, and the invoices they provide must include, among other specified requirements, the amount of tax collected.

Retailers, cultivators, and manufacturers must keep these invoices as verification that the appropriate tax was paid.

How This Impacts The Black Market

Many believe that the CDTFA’s decision to increase taxes on compliant cannabis operators while still mandating compliance with State and local regulations will widen the price disparity gap between cannabis products sold in the black market vs. cannabis products sold in the legal market. But with the State stepping up its enforcement efforts to uncover and prosecute illegal cannabis operators, the State is hoping to eliminate this discrepancy by eradicating non-compliant operators.

What Should You Do?

Start your marijuana business on the right track.  Protect yourself and your investment by engaging the cannabis tax attorneys at the Law Offices Of Jeffrey B. Kahn, P.C. located in Orange County (Irvine), Los Angeles County and other California locations. We can come up with tax solutions and strategies and protect you and your business and to maximize your net profits. Also, if you are involved in crypto currency, check out what a bitcoin tax attorney can do for you.

IRS Has A Plan To Crack Down On Crypto Tax Evaders

IRS Has A Plan To Crack Down On Crypto Tax Evaders

After years of analyzing data from third parties involved in the cryptocurrency exchanges, the IRS announced in a press release on July 26, 2019 that it has started sending letters to cryptocurrency owners advising them to report their cryptocurrency transactions and pay their taxes. More than 10,000 taxpayers have been identified by IRS as being involved in cryptocurrency transactions but who the IRS believes may not have been compliant in reporting these transactions on their tax returns.

Taxpayers who do not properly report the income tax consequences of virtual currency transactions are, when appropriate, liable for tax, penalties and interest. In some cases, taxpayers could be subject to criminal prosecution.

Notices Sent To Taxpayers Are The First Step In IRS Enforcement Action

The IRS is using three types of notices to send to more than 10,000 taxpayers by the end of August 2019 – notices 6173, 6174 or 6174-A. All three notices indicate the IRS has information that the taxpayer receiving the notice currently has or has had virtual currency. However, it is Letter 6173 that is most serious as it requires a signature from the recipient under perjury that they are compliant with the U.S. tax code or requiring taxpayers to respond to the IRS and either file delinquent returns for tax years 2013 through 2017 or amend previously filed returns and include the applicable forms or schedules reporting cryptocurrency transactions. If you receive a Letter 6173, it should be a virtual certainty that you will be selected for examination.

If you receive Letter 6173, you should consult with a tax attorney as the submission of a statement signed under penalties of perjury that is false can result in serious consequences including criminal prosecution.

Virtual Currency Is An Ongoing Focus Area For IRS Criminal Investigation.

Last year the IRS announced a Virtual Currency Compliance Campaign to address tax noncompliance related to the use of virtual currency through outreach and examinations of taxpayers. The IRS will remain actively engaged in addressing non-compliance related to virtual currency transactions through a variety of efforts, ranging from taxpayer education to audits to criminal investigations.

The Proposed 2019 Form 1040 Makes It Harder For U.S. Taxpayers To Avoid Non-compliance Or Claim Ignorance.

The IRS has now issued the second early release draft of the 2019 Form 1040, Schedule1, Additional Income and Adjustments to Income, which includes the following checkbox question:

At any time during 2019, did you receive, sell, send, exchange or otherwise acquire any financial interest in any virtual currency?   ◊ Yes            ◊ No

Taxpayers who file Schedule 1 to report income or adjustments to income that can’t be entered directly on Form 1040 will now be required to check the appropriate box to answer the virtual currency question. Taxpayers do not need to file Schedule 1 if their answer to this question is NO and they do not have to file Schedule 1 for any other purpose. This requirement is similar to how the IRS includes questions on Schedule B inquiring whether a taxpayer has foreign bank accounts.

Taxpayers who answer “no” and for who the IRS later determines should have answered “yes” could face civil or criminal penalties and it could affect their success in having penalties abated for reasonable cause.

Taxation Of Cryptocurrency

Cryptocurrency transactions are apparently wildly taxable – far more so than investors may think. Although the IRS has not issued much formal guidance, the position of IRS is that any transaction involving virtual currency can trigger a taxable event including air drops and fork transaction as well as conversions or trades from one virtual currency to another virtual currency.

The IRS in 2014 issued Notice 2014-21 stating that it treats crypto currency as property for tax purposes. Therefore, selling, spending and even exchanging crypto for other tokens all likely have capital gain implications. Likewise, receiving it as compensation or by other means will be ordinary income. This notice has since been supplemented by Revenue Ruling 2019-24 and frequently asked questions (FAQ’s).

Some would think that if bitcoin is property, trades should be tax deferred under the like-kind changes rues of I.R.C. §1031. Under that theory someone who owned Bitcoin could diversify their holdings into Ethereum or Litecoin, and plausibly tell the IRS it created no tax obligations. Unfortunately, the new Tax Cuts & Jobs Act of 2017 does away with that loophole making it clear that “like kind exchanges” which lets people swap an asset for a similar one without triggering a tax obligation are not available for non-real estate assets.

While Bitcoin receives most of the attention these days, it is only one of hundreds of crypto currencies. Everything discussed with regard to bitcoin taxation applies to all crypto currencies.

Here are the basic tax rules followed by IRS on specific crypto currency transactions:

  • Trading crypto currencies produces capital gains or losses, with the latter being able to offset gains and reduce tax.
  • Exchanging one crypto currency for another — for example, using Ethereum to purchase an altcoin — creates a taxable event. The token is treated as being sold, thus generating capital gains or losses.
  • Receiving payments in crypto currency in exchange for products or services or as salary is treated as ordinary income at the fair market value of the coin at the time of receipt.
  • Spending crypto currency is a tax event and may generate capital gains or losses, which can be short-term or long-term. For example, say you bought one coin for $500. If that coin was then worth $700 and you bought a $700 gift card, there is a $200 taxable gain. Depending on the holding period, it could be a short- or long-term capital gain subject to different rates.
  • Converting a crypto currency to U.S. dollars or another currency at a gain is a taxable event, as it is treated as being sold, thus generating capital gains.
  • Air drops are considered ordinary income on the day of the air drop. That value will become the basis of the coin. When it’s sold, exchanged, etc., there will be a capital gain.
  • Mining crypto currency is considered ordinary income equal to the fair market value of the coin the day it was successfully mined.
  • Initial coin offerings including certain forks do not fall under the IRS’s tax-free treatment for raising capital. Thus, they produce ordinary income to individuals and businesses alike.

Given the limited guidance by IRS, there are still tax positions that can be advocated or structured so that taxpayers dealing with crypto currency can defer gains and minimize taxes. That is why it is essential you seek qualified tax counsel.

Penalties For Filing A False Income Tax Return Or Under-reporting Income

Failure to report all the money you make is a main reason folks end up facing an IRS auditor. Carelessness on your tax return might get you whacked with a 20% penalty. But that’s nothing compared to the 75% civil penalty for willful tax fraud and possibly facing criminal charges of tax evasion that if convicted could land you in jail.

Criminal Fraud – The law defines that any person who willfully attempts in any manner to evade or defeat any tax under the Internal Revenue Code or the payment thereof is, in addition to other penalties provided by law, guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, can be fined not more than $100,000 ($500,000 in the case of a corporation), or imprisoned not more than five years, or both, together with the costs of prosecution (Code Sec. 7201).

The term “willfully” has been interpreted to require a specific intent to violate the law (U.S. v. Pomponio, 429 U.S. 10 (1976)). The term “willfulness” is defined as the voluntary, intentional violation of a known legal duty (Cheek v. U.S., 498 U.S. 192 (1991)).

And even if the IRS is not looking to put you in jail, they will be looking to hit you with a big tax bill with hefty penalties.

Civil Fraud – Normally the IRS will impose a negligence penalty of 20% of the underpayment of tax (Code Sec. 6662(b)(1) and 6662(b)(2)) but violations of the Internal Revenue Code with the intent to evade income taxes may result in a civil fraud penalty. In lieu of the 20% negligence penalty, the civil fraud penalty is 75% of the underpayment of tax (Code Sec. 6663). The imposition of the Civil Fraud Penalty essentially doubles your liability to the IRS!

What Should You Do?

The IRS has not yet announced a specific tax amnesty for people who failed to report their gains and income from Bitcoin and other virtual currencies but under the existing Voluntary Disclosure Program, non-compliant taxpayers can come forward to avoid criminal prosecution and negotiate lower penalties.

With only several hundred people reporting their crypto gains each year since Bitcoin’s launch, the IRS suspects that many crypto users have been evading taxes by not reporting crypto transactions on their tax returns. 

And now that likeexchange treatment is prohibited on non-real estate transactions that occur after 2017, now is the ideal time to be proactive and come forward with voluntary disclosure to lock in your deferred gains through 2017, eliminate your risk for criminal prosecution, and minimize your civil penalties.  Don’t delay because once the IRS has targeted you for investigation – even if it is a routine random audit – it will be too late voluntarily come forward. Let the bitcoin tax attorneys at the Law Offices Of Jeffrey B. Kahn, P.C. located in Orange County (Irvine), San Francisco Bay Area (including San Jose and Walnut Creek) and offices elsewhere in California get you qualified into a voluntary disclosure program to avoid criminal prosecution, seek abatement of penalties, and minimize your tax liability. Additionally, if you are involved in cannabis, check out what a cannabis tax attorney can do for you.

Florida Tax Return Preparer Found Guilty of Filing False Tax Returns and Theft of Government Funds

Florida Tax Return Preparer Found Guilty of Filing False Tax Returns and Theft of Government Funds

The U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Southern District Of Florida announced on November 6, 2019 in a press release that Paul Senat, age 39, the owner and operator of American Fast Services & Tax, American Justice Services & Tax and AM & PM Tax Services, located in Palm Beach County, Florida, was convicted by a federal jury for aiding and assisting in the preparation of false tax returns and theft of government funds.

Guilty Verdict.

According to the evidence presented at trial, from at least 2012 to 2016, Senat through his tax preparation business falsified his clients’ returns by reporting fictitious business losses and false education credits in order to fraudulently inflate their refunds.

Senat faces a statutory maximum sentence of 10 years in prison for theft of government funds and three years for each count of aiding and assisting in the preparation of false returns. He also faces a period of supervised release, restitution, forfeiture, and monetary penalties. A sentencing date has been set for January 27, 2020.

IRS announces arrests and indictments after two-week campaign to fight refund fraud and identity theft. 

The Federal District Courts should expect to see more of these cases as the IRS announced on March 20, 2019 the results of a national two-week enforcement and education campaign to combat refund crimes and identity theft that resulted in numerous legal actions against suspected criminals and businesses committing these crimes.

Identity theft is a pervasive crime and stopping it remains a top priority of the IRS,” said IRS Commissioner Chuck Rettig. “The IRS, with the help of our Security Summit partners, continues to make progress in this area, but we need to continue our significant efforts to protect taxpayers and assist those who have been a victim of identity theft. We are fighting this problem with enhanced systems, smarter technology and the efforts of our dedicated workforce, including Criminal Investigation. We will retain our relentless, vigorous pursuit of those who prey upon others in this arena”.

Working with the Department of Justice Tax Division and U.S. Attorneys around the nation, IRS Criminal Investigation (CI) made 11 arrests, indicted 15 individuals and saw five other individuals or businesses sentenced who perpetrated some type of refund fraud or identity theft scheme.

Millions of taxpayers put their trust in tax professionals to prepare accurate and lawful returns.

Unfortunately, a few bad apples take advantage of that trust for their own greed and profit,” said Don Fort, Chief of IRS Criminal Investigation. “CI’s special agents are highly skilled at unraveling fraudulent schemes. With our partners in other agencies and the private sector, we are dismantling these crooked enterprises and enforcing our tax laws”.

What Should You Do?

Whether you are a victim of identity theft or the perpetrator of identity theft, it is important that you seek legal counsel as soon as possible to preserve your rights and/or mitigate your losses.  The tax attorneys of the Law Offices Of Jeffrey B. Kahn, P.C. located in Orange County (Irvine), San Francisco Bay Area (including San Jose and Walnut Creek) and elsewhere in California know exactly what to say and how to handle issues with the IRS as well as State Tax Agencies.  Our experience and expertise not only levels the playing field but also puts you in the driver’s seat as we take full control of resolving your tax problems. Also, if you are involved in cannabis, check out what our cannabis tax attorney can do for you. Additionally, if you are involved in crypto currency, check out what a bitcoin tax attorney can do for you.

Another Cannabis Business Hit Hard By I.R.C. Section 280E In U.S. Tax Court

I.R.C. § 280E disallows all trade or business expense deductions for a cannabis business even though the cannabis business operates legally under state law. As more “280E Tax Audits” make their way up to the U.S. Tax Court, various creative arguments have been made challenging the constitutionality and legality of § 280E. A recent such case where the U.S. Tax Court issued an opinion is Northern California Small Business Assistants Inc. v. Comm’r, 153 T.C. No. 4 (2019).

Northern California Small Business Assistants Inc.

Northern California Small Business Assistants Inc. (“NCSBA”) is a California medical marijuana dispensary that was selected for audit for the 2012 tax year. The IRS agent in carrying out the mandate of § 280E determined a deficiency of over $1.2 million and applied an accuracy-related penalty of $252,842.

NCSBA petitioned the Tax Court, contending that its operations are legal under California law and presenting three novel arguments. First, NCSBA argued that Code Sec. 280E imposes a gross receipts tax as a penalty in violation of the Eighth Amendment. Second, NCSBA argued that the text of § 280E tracks that of § 162, which allows for all ordinary and necessary business expense deductions, suggesting that § 280E limits only § 162 deductions and permits others – specifically, taxes under § 164 and depreciation under § 167. Finally, NCSBA argued that § 280E refers to “trafficking” and therefore does not apply to marijuana businesses operating legally under state law.

The Tax Court rejected all of NCSBA’s arguments. With respect to NCSBA’s Eighth Amendment argument, the Tax Court ruled that, unlike in other contexts where a financial burden was found to be a penalty, disallowing a deduction from gross income is not a punishment. In the court’s view, § 280E was enacted under Congress’s clear authority to tax gross income and is directed at persons who operate a business in violation of state or federal law.

Next, the Tax Court found that § 280E is not limited to trade or business deductions because the plain language of § 280E states that “no deduction or credit shall be allowed” to businesses that traffic in controlled substances. The court noted that § 261 provides that “no deduction” is allowed for items specified in part IX of subchapter B, and § 280E is in part IX. Similarly, § 161 provides that the deductions in part VI of subchapter B, including the deductions in § 164 and § 167, are allowed subject to the exceptions in part IX. Thus, the court found that, clearly, § 164 and § 167 are limited by the exceptions in part IX, including § 280E.

Finally, the Tax Court rejected NCSBA’s argument that the word “trafficking” in § 280E implied that the statute does not apply to a business operating legally under state law. The court noted that it has rejected that argument in several previous cases and that NCSBA offered no compelling reason to overrule those decisions. The court concluded that its precedent is unambiguous and that Congress, not the courts, would need to carve out an exception in § 280E for businesses that operate legally under state law.

The Anti-Federal U.S. Climate

The Federal Controlled Substances Act (“CSA”) 21 U.S.C. § 812 classifies marijuana as a Schedule 1 substance with a high potential for abuse, no currently accepted medical use in treatment, and lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision. Although you can still face federal criminal charges for using, growing, or selling weed in a manner that is completely lawful under California law and other states that have legalized cannabis, the federal authorities in the past have pulled back from targeting individuals and businesses engaged in medical marijuana activities. This pull back though has no impact on the IRS which will likely start in 2019 to more aggressively target cannabis businesses with audits.

Risk Of Getting A Big Tax Bill From IRS That You Cannot Pay

Generally, businesses can deduct ordinary and necessary business expenses under §162. This includes wages, rent, supplies, etc. However, in 1982 Congress added § 280E. Under § 280E, taxpayers cannot deduct any amount for a trade or business where the trade or business consists of trafficking in controlled substances…which is prohibited by Federal law. Marijuana, including medical marijuana, is a controlled substance. What this means is that dispensaries and other businesses trafficking in marijuana have to report all of their income and cannot deduct rent, wages, and other expenses, making their marginal tax rate substantially higher than most other businesses. A cannabis business that has not properly reported its income and expenses and not engaged in the planning to minimize income taxes can face a large liability proposed by IRS reflected on a Notice Of Deficiency or tax bill.

This risk should be risk posing the greatest challenge to any cannabis business as the Federal taxation of cannabis businesses is consistent in all states and not dependent on whether local Federal prosecutors are aggressive in enforcing the illegality of cannabis or the banks unwilling to do business with the cannabis industry. This unexpected liability can put you out of business so it is important to secure qualified tax counsel to be proactive with tax planning to minimize taxes and to defend you in any tax examinations, appeals or litigation with the IRS.

What Should You Do?

While more States are legalizing cannabis, risks to the cannabis industry still exist. Considering the risks of cannabis you need to protect yourself and your investment. Level the playing field and gain the upper hand by engaging the cannabis tax attorneys at the Law Offices Of Jeffrey B. Kahn, P.C. located in Orange County (Irvine), the Inland Empire (including Ontario and Palm Springs) and other California locations. We can come up with solutions and strategies to these risks and protect you and your business to maximize your net profits. And if you are involved in crypto currency, check out what a bitcoin tax attorney can do for you.